Specialist expertise: Trans-anal Minimally Invasive Surgery (TAMIS), Abdominal Wall Hernias, Groin Hernias, General Surgery, Colorectal Cancer, Anal Cancer, Anal Fistula, Pelvic Floor Disorders, Gastrointestinal Surgery, Colonoscopy, Laparoscopic Procedures (Keyhole Surgery), Minimally Invasive Surgery, Diverticular Disease, Crohn's Disease, Ulcerative Colitis, Haemorrhoids, Anal fissure, Rectal Prolapse, Faecal Incontinence, Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia.
Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia (AIN) is a pre cancerous change in the skin in the perianal area caused by exposure to human papilloma virus (HPV). The most common HPV types associated with AIN are HPV 16 and HPV 18.
In women, the cause of AIN is similar to cervical changes (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or CIN) detected on cervical smear tests. Women who have had previous abnormal smear tests may be at risk of similar changes in the skin in the perianal area.
Other high risk populations for this condition are:
- Anyone who has had genital warts at any time in their life
- Men who have sex with men (MSM)
- People with immune suppression related to HIV
- People who have previously had an organ transplant
- People with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)
- Those using drugs such as steroids.
AIN is important because in some cases over time it can develop into anal cancer. When AIN is looked at under the microscope, it progresses through three stages (I, II and II) before becoming cancer. If you have stage III AIN it is more likely to progress to cancer.